วันจันทร์ที่ 30 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2555

Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) Animation

CGI Animation : Definition and Techniques
By Parul Solanki
A subset of the broad field of animation, CGI or computer-generated imagery, can be defined as the use of computers for creating moving images. Using certain 3D animation software tools like Maya, 3ds Max or Blender, the first step of CGI animation, involves creating a 'wire frame' or a geometric model of the object. Now, the surface appearance of the object has to be determined. This involves providing color, texture, reflectivity and transparency to the objects in question, with the help of tools known as 'shaders'. The final step in the animation process, involves the computer rendering of the entire scene. This involves the calculation of the color of the pixels in the scene, which determines the shading, texture mapping, reflection, refraction and photo-realistic rendering. This may sound simple, but given the millions of pixels in a high definition scene, providing the realistic animal movements, skin, hair and fur, is still quite a complex task. Not to mention the problems areas of introducing features like liquids, gases and complex surfaces, like the texture of the face and the clothing.

A simpler method of adding movement to the objects, is by duplicating an image, displayed on the computer screen and repeatedly replacing this new image, that is similar to the previous image, but slightly advanced in the time domain. Thus, using persistence of vision, the illusion of smooth movement is provided by drawing the pictures at 12 fps (frames per second). In a computer generated image, this is achieved by changing the values of the segments of the skeletal model over time, making the character move from frame to frame. There are several methods for achieving that realistic motion, such as keyframing to motion capture.

Impact of CGI Animation

Cheaper than most of the other animation methods, like construction of miniatures or the use of actors or other contributors to the project, CGI animation is increasingly being used for producing high quality visual effects and realistic images. The accessibility to the CGI software tools, in the recent years, has enabled individual artists and small production units to come up with content without the use of actors, expensive set pieces, or props. While 2D CGI was first used in 1973, in the movie Westworld, it has been increasingly used over the years, in popular movies like The Jurassic Park and the Star Wars series. It was in the year 1995, that the first fully computer-generated feature film, Toy Story was released.

The Future of CGI Animation

Technological change is an inevitable part of life, and therein lies the uncertain future of CGI animation. Although people have increasingly taken to the animated bugs, monsters and animals, it is the creation of a photorealistic animation of humans, that remains out of reach for CGI animators. To replicate the complex human emotions and movements as a 3D animation, remains the goal for all animators. However, complete human realism, where there is no distinguishing between a particular movie sequence that is computer-generated or created using real actors in front of movie cameras, seems an unachievable dream. However with the rapid development of the personal computers, that has reduced their rendering time quite significantly, and the images having become more realistic, CGI animation is here to stay, it seems.

Basic Types of Animation

Basic Types of Animation
By Vaishali Satwase

Basic Types of Animation
The basic types of animation are the primary keynote for animation effect. The 3 basic types of animation are cel, stop and computer animation.

Cel Animation
Cel animation refers to the traditional way of animation in a set of hand drawings. In this process of animation, various pictures are created which are slightly different but progressive in nature, to depict certain actions. Trace these drawings on a transparent sheet. This transparent sheet is known as cel and is a medium for drawing frames. Now draw outlines for the images and color them on the back of the cel. The cel is an effective technique that helps to save time by combining characters and backgrounds. You can also put the previous drawings over other backgrounds or cels whenever required. Here, you need not draw the same picture again as it has the facility of saving previous animations that can be used when required. Coloring a background may be a more difficult task than a single drawing, as it covers the whole picture. Background requires shading and lighting and will be viewed for a longer duration. Then use your camera to photograph these drawings. Today, cel animations are made more attractive by using the drawings together with music, matching sound effects and association of timing for each effect. E.g. To display a cartoon show, 10-12 frames are played in rapid succession per second to give a representation of movement in a cel animation.

Stop Animation
Stop animation or stop motion animation is a technique to make objects move on their own. Here, a few images are drawn with some different positions and photographed separately. Puppetry is the one of the most used frame-to-frame animation types. Some famous movies that are animated via stop animation effects are King Kong, The Dinosaur and the Missing Link, The Curse of the Were-Rabbit and and The Lost World.

Computer Animation
Computer Animation is the latest technique of animation that includes 2D and 3D animation. These animations not only enhance the hand-drawn characters but also make them appear real as compared to the above mentioned animations.

2D Animation: It is used through Powerpoint and Flash animations. Though its features are similar to cel animation, 2D animation has become popular due to simple application of scanned drawings into the computer like in a cartoon film.

3D Animation: It is used in film making where we require unusual objects or characters that are not easy to display. Use of 3D animation can create a crowd of people in a disaster like earthquake, flood or war. There are different shapes, support of mathematical codes, display of actions and colors which are mind-blowing as if copied from an actual picture.

The above mentioned 3 basic types of animation have brought a new era of amazing technology in the field of Internet (website design and graphics), film industry and media. In addition, animation is the one of the popular Internet marketing strategies that make visitors stay on your site for a longer time.

Read more at  : http://www.buzzle.com/articles/basic-types-of-animation.html

วันเสาร์ที่ 7 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2555

What is STORYBOARDS ? สตอรี่บอร์ดคืออะไร

An artist’s rendering in pencil or pen (usually black-and-white, rarely in color) onto a series of panels to approximate what the composition, angle, and movement within the frame will be for each shot of animation.The storyboard shows what the visual sequence of the entire episode or movie will be. Dialogue and sound effects from the script are placed beneath the shots where the dialogue and sound should occur.The storyboard is used as the guide for all further artwork and production in creating that piece of animation, as well as providing an early indication of whether the script is too long or too short.(Marx,Christy ,2007)
     หมายถึงแผ่นป้ายหรือแผนภาพที่เขียนเรียบเรียงขึ้นอย่างเป็นระบบ เพื่อเป็นเครื่องมือในการใช้วางแผนจัดการแสดง ใช้สื่อสาร ใช้เป็นเครื่องมือในการบอกเล่าถึงการวางแผนจัดกระทำ การบริหารจัดการสิ่งต่างๆที่เกี่ยวข้องในงาน การลำดับเหตุการณ์ของ ภาพ ฉาก อุปกรณ์ ตัวละครที่เกี่ยวกับเรื่องราวที่จะดำเนินการสร้างสรรค์เป็นผลงาน มนการที่จะต้องมีการสร้าง บันทึก จัดเก็บและจะนำเสนอ เป็นภาพนิ่ง ภาพเคลื่อนไหว การจัดการกำกับเหตุการณ์ในเวลาจริง หรือเป็นการบันทึกลงสื่อดิจิตัลรูปแบบต่างๆ สตอรี่บอร์ดจึงเป็นผลงานที่รู้จักกันดีคือเป็นชิ้นงานที่ใช้ในการถ่ายทำภาพยนตร์หรือการนั่นเอง ซึ่งโดยปกติแล้วมักจะเป็นหน้าที่ของช่างศิลป์หรือนักสร้างภาพประกอบที่ต้องขีดเขียนขึ้นด้วยการอาศัยทักษะฝีมือทางการวาดภาพ และสร้างภาพจากเนื้อหาเรื่องราวแต่ละฉากแต่ละตอน ออกมาให้ปรากฏก่อนเกิดการดำเนินการสร้างจริง เป็นการสรุปย่อและวางแผนการกำกับทุกสรรพสิ่งที่จะเกี่ยวข้องในการถ่ายทำนั่นเอง
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